问题与解答(续)(节选)
Replies to the Questions from the Attendance

整理:CACI秘书处 翻译:蒋智翔教授清华大学
Sorted out by CACI, Translated by Professor Jiang Zhixiang, Tsinghua University

2007年5月底,ASME分别在北京和上海举办了ASME规范和高温材料研讨会。现将与会者提出的49个问题及ASME总部的书面答复刊载如下,供读者参考。
In the end of May 2007, ASME held “ASME Pressure Vessel Codes and High Temperature Materials” in Beijing and Shanghai. Now we serial publish the 49 questions of attendee and its answers of ASME headquarters for the readers reference only.

材料,制造,ASME规范,设计,计算
Material,Manufacture,ASME Codes,Design,Calculation

第二部分 制造

问题2-1: Φ273x8用δ8板卷制,在卷制过程中,加温控制在350℃以下,焊接校形后进行固溶处理,温度为1130±10℃,时间为10分钟左右,固溶后与法兰焊接时,管子焊缝及其与法兰角焊缝处出现裂纹(横向、纵向都有),具有贯穿性裂纹产生,试问为何出现这种情况,操作过程是否有不恰当处,该如何避免?(重新制作时,冷卷、焊接,无任何问题出现。)
Q2-1: By using the duplex stainless plate in thickness of 8 mm, one pipe with the outside diameter of 273 mm was rolled. In the process of hot rolling, the temperature was controlled under 350℃. After post weld re-correction in form, the process of particle solution was carried out. The temperature was 1130±10 ℃ and time continued around 10 min. Then, the pipe was welded to a flange. In this process, some axial and transverse cracks, some of which were penetrating, appeared at the welds of pipe and flange corner. In this whole procedure, is there any inappropriate operation or parameter designated? If so, how to avoid them? (When the pipe was fabricated again with the process of cold-rolling and welding, there was no crack found.)

Answer:Design and fabrication questions which are consulting in nature cannot be answered by ASME.
答复:ASME不能回答有关性能的设计及制造问题。

问题2-2:检验钢印应打在铭牌钉上吗?请告诉章节。
Q2-2: Is the inspection stamp should be stamped to the rivet of name plate? And please tell me the paragraph in ASME code.

Answer:See UG-116(i) and 119 of VIII-1. The code symbol may be pre-applied to the nameplate, or stamped separately as long as, “all required markings shall be located in a conspicuous place on the vessel, preferably near a manhole or hand-hole.”
答复:见VIII-1中的UG-116(i) 和 UG-119 。规范标记可预先施打在铭牌上,或将钢印分别打成“所有所需施打的标记应位于容器上的引人注目的部位,最好靠近人孔或手孔。”

问题2-3:厚壁奥氏体不锈钢(316L)管道在固溶化处理时ASME有没有规定不锈钢管道必须浸入流动的水中急冷?如果水量足够大,不锈钢管道浸入不流动的水中,并在水池底部通入压缩空气鼓泡搅动池水,请问用这种方法对不锈钢固溶化处理冷却是否可行?
Q2-3: In the process of solid particle solution for thick austenitic steel pipe (316L), is there any provision in ASME code which require that this stainless steel pipe must be immersed in flowing water to be cooled quickly? If the water pond is large enough, the stainless steel pipe is immersed in the motionless water, but, the compressed air is introduced from the bottom of the pond to form a large mount of bubbles. Whether this method is applicable the process?

Answer: This is not addressed in the code.
答复:本规范内不论述此问题。

问题2-4:立式容器压力试验,卧试时是否必须另外加上液体静压柱?
Q2-4: When hydrostatic test in horizontal position for a vertical vessel, shall the test pressure include the static liquid pressure?
Answer:See Interpretation VIII-1-95-27;

Interpretation

VIII-1-95-27

Subject

Section VIII, Division 1 (1992 Edition, 1993 Addenda); UG-99(b)

Date Issued

January 12, 1995

File

BC94-414

Question (1): Does the last sentence of UG-99(b) of Section VIII, Division 1, "All loadings that may exist during this test shall be given consideration," require that the static head that exists in a tower in the vertical position must be considered when determining the test pressure in the horizontal position?
Reply (1): No.

Question (2): Does UG-99 specify in which position a vertical tower must be hydrotested?
Reply (2): No.

答复:见条款解释VIII-1-95-27;

条款解释

VIII-1-95-27

题目

第VIII卷第一分册(1992版,1993增补),UG-99(b)

发布日期

1995年1月12日

文件号

BC94-414

问题(1):是否第VIII卷第一分册UG-99(b)中的最后一句“所有在此试验时存在的载荷都应考虑”要求在确定卧试时的试验压力时必须考虑立式容器所存在的液体静压柱?
答复(1):不。

问题(2):是否UG-99规定了立式容器必须放置在什么方向进行水压试验?
答复(2):不。

问题2-5:当设计压力超过MAWP时,压力试验值按1.3倍设计压力,还是按1.3 MAWP来确定?

(删)

问题2-6: ASME规范要求产品铭牌上需填写哪些参数?

(删)

问题2-7: ASME产品铭牌上的参数单位能否英制和公制混用?若混用,是否在图纸上一定要写上规范2523?

(删)

问题2-8:射线检测能用TOFD替代吗?

(删)

问题2-9:国外供货商制造的压力容器,打ASME U钢印和不打钢印价格上大致相差多少?

(删)

问题2-10: UW-9 (d)焊接接头的设计对筒体的纵缝作出了规定,请问对封头的拼接有无要求?
Q2-10: UW-9 (d) gives stipulation to the longitudinal weld of shell, we want to know if there is stipulation for the head weld?

Answer:This is a good question, that has been answered by two different code Interpretations:

Interpretation (1)

VIII-1-86-199

Subject

Section VIII, Division 1, UW-9(d)

Date Issued

January 15, 1988

File

BC87-475

Question: Do the requirements of UW-9(d) apply to the joints of a hemispherical head fabricated by welding?

Reply: Yes.

Interpretation (2)

VIII-1-83-159

Subject

Section VIII-1, UW-9(d)

Date Issued

August 23, 1983

File

BC83-262

Question: Would a welded head and/or head skirt with longitudinal welds be required to satisfy the rules of UW-9(d) for shell courses of Section VIII, Division 1?

Reply: Yes.

答复:这是一个好问题。在两个不同的条款解释中答复了此问题。

条款解释(1)

VIII-1-86-199

题目

第VIII卷第一分册,UW-9(d)

发布日期

1988年1月15日

文件号

BC87-475

问题:UW-9(d)的要求是否适用于焊接制造的半球形封头的接头?
答复:是。

条款解释(2:

VIII-1-83-159

题目

第VIII卷第一分册,UW-9(d)

发布日期

1983年8月23日

文件号

BC83-262

问题:对于第VIII卷第一分册的筒节,焊接封头和/或具有纵焊缝的封头裙座是否需要满足规则UW-9(d)?

答复:是。

问题2-11:封头产品可否使用DR检测(实时成像技术),如可以,则程序如何编写、人员培训如何操作?

(删)

问题2-12:如果材料由容器制造厂提供,由封头制造厂焊接、热处理、无损检测,则打钢印、出数据报告,该怎样操作?

(删)

问题2-13UG-81(a) 规定成型封头的公差“转角半径不应小于规定值”,对旋压封头很难保证。如果实际转角半径小于规定值,但符合UG32设计规定,这样允许吗?

(删)

问题2-14:复合钢板(SA516 Gr70 +316L30+3mm),如果焊角需要热处理,则如何确定热处理温度?热处理时会导致316L敏化吗?(通华公司)

(删)

问题2-15:外部加强圈与接管干涉,可否将加强圈在接管处断开并与接管焊接?
Q2-15:If the outer stiffening ring interfered with the nozzle , is it permitted to break the ring and welded to the nozzle?

Answer:Please see the following two interpretations:
答复:见下列两条款解释:

Interpretation (1)

VIII-1-92-198

Subject

Section VIII, Division 1 (1989 Edition, 1991 Addenda); U-2(g) and UG-29(b)

Date Issued

February 25, 1994

File

BC92-219

Question: Does Section VIII, Division 1 provide rules for the design of a stiffener ring around the inside circumference of a cylinder when the stiffener is interrupted by a nozzle opening?

Reply: No, see U-2(g).

Interpretation (2)

VIII-1-89-275

Subject:

Section VIII, Division 1 (1989 Edition, 1989 Addenda), U-2(g) and UG-29(b)

Date Issued

February 13, 1991

File

BC91-011

Question: When a stiffener ring extends completely around the outside circumference of a cylinder and intersects a nozzle, may a connection between nozzle and stiffener be made if the required moment of inertia of the ring shell section is maintained through the nozzle per UG-29(b) and design and construction details are submitted and accepted by the Authorized Inspector per U-2(g)?

Reply: Yes.

条款解释(1)

VIII-1-92-198

题目

第VIII卷第一分册(1989版,1991增补)U-2(g) 和 UG-29(b)

发布日期

1994年2月25日

文件号

BC92-219

问题:第VIII卷第一分册是否提供了当筒体上的管接头开孔穿过筒体的内加强环时加强环的设计规则?

答复:不,见U-2(g)。

条款解释(2)

VIII-1-89-275

题目

第VIII卷第一分册(1989版,1989增补)U-2(g) 和 UG-29(b)

发布日期

1991年2月13日

文件号

BC91-011

问题:对于围绕着筒体的整个外圆周、且与一管接头相交的加强环,如果在管接头处加强环--筒体截面所需的惯性矩仍按UG-29(b)保持不变,而且设计和结构详图都按U-2(g)提交给授权检验师且经他认可,在此情况下是否可将管接头与加强环通过接头连接起来?

答复:可以。

第三部分规范及设计、计算

问题3-1: ASME 认证与 CE有关系吗?

Q3-1: Is there any relations between ASME certification and CE certification?

Answer:There is no direct correlation between ASME and CE markings.ASME design codes can be used as the basis for compliance with the EC PED, but additional steps need to be taken.ASME has issued guidance documents describing how far ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel standards go to meet the PED, and what additional steps need to be taken. These guidance documents are available on the ASME digital store at www.asme.org.

答复:ASME与CE标志间没有直接关系。ASME设计规范可作为按EC PED设计的基础,但需要采取附加步骤。ASME已发布了指导文件,叙述了ASME锅炉和压力容器规范与PED间存在多大的差别,需要采取什么附加步骤。此指导文件可在ASME官方网站www.asme.org中的ASME数字书店(ASME digital store)中获得。

问题3-2: DIN标准、ASME标准及国标并用应注意什么问题?(例如塔体用ASME设计,管道用DIN标准)

Q3-2: When using DIN, ASME and Chinese standard in design at the same time, what problem should be noted? (For example, one tower is design in accordance with ASME, but the piping system is design in accordance with DIN.)

Answer:Design questions which are consulting in nature cannot be answered by ASME.

答复:ASME不能回答有关性能的设计问题。

问题3-3:对交变载荷压力容器可按VIII-1的规定章节设计吗?

(删)

 问题3-4:什么情况下用VIII-1规范设计?什么情况下用VIII-2规范设计?

(删)

问题3-5: ASME的结构应力与 EN13445的结构应变有什么关系吗?

(删)

问题3-6:应力分类方法与直接方法有优先要求么?

(删)

问题3-7:局部做分析设计必须有资质吗?

(删)

问题3-8: VIII-2与EN13445相比有哪些优点和哪些不足?

(删)

问题3-9:如果订购的ASME钢材经复验,高温强度限小于规范值的10%,在这种情况下,分析设计仍能采用VIII-2给出的 S(or Sm)值进行设计吗?该材料是拒收还是继续使用?

(删)

问题3-10:对于温度高于375℃的碳素钢和低合金钢如何进行疲劳分析?

(删)

问题3-11:中国标准(GB150)规定壳体钢板厚度超过30mm应进行超声波检测,ASME是否有类似规定,如有,是如何规定的?(上海动力)

(删)

问题3-12:按VIII-2进行分析设计,换热器是否可以用VIII-1中的UHX方法?是否可以按第一强度理论变为第三强度理论?还有什么注意事项?

(删)

问题3-13:中国GB规范中设计温度或环境温度小于-20℃时,材料要采用低温钢,ASME规范中有无此概念?

(删)

问题3-14:马来西亚政府规程中承认ASME II的材料,中国GB6654 16MnR 已列入规范 2506,是否可在马来西亚使用?

(删)

问题3-15:在美国5000m3以上的液化石油气球罐多不多?按VIII-1 或 VIII-2设计时,对地震载荷作用下支柱的应力分析有什么区别、有什么注意事项?

(删)

Q3-16: For a spherically dish head connecting to cylindrical shell, whether the structure shown in the lower figure can be used and it can be calculated as the structure shown in the upper figure?

(删)

问题3-17: UG-32(b)中半球形封头的R如何选取,取筒体的一半还是封头球面部分R?

(删)

问题3-18:在UW-13.2中,带支撑的管板(或平盖)或不带支撑的管板(或平盖)如何理解?

(删)

问题3-19:凸缘如何计算?

(删)

问题3-20: ASME VIII-1中对膨胀节外压计算长度没有定义,为什么?

(删)

问题3-21:在标准中,在确定椭圆封头和碟形封头时,有个限定条件:ts/L ≥ 0.002,请问,该限定值是根据公式来的吗,如果不是,请问是根据什么来的?(上海杨园)

(删)

问题3-22:在标准中,L-9.2.3中似乎有错误:
标准中,L-9.2.3中第5步,调整的MDMT=9°F,高于壳体调整后的MDMT。假如欲保持由壳体确定的2°F MDMT,使封头直边段A类对接接头调整后的MDMT为2°F,封头直边段的最小厚度能很容易地由下式确定:
tn = (100trE*) / (100-DR) + C
但,事实上是不容易的!
首先,我们来推导上面公式:
其中,tn—新的厚度值, in.
Tn—新的厚度tn所对应的未调整的MDMT值,°F
2°F—期望达到的调整后的 MDMT
步骤 3: 比值 (trE*) / (tr-C)
步骤 4: (1- Radio)100 = 100[1- (trE*) / (tr-C)]
步骤 5: Tn-100[1- (trE*) / (tr-C)]= 2
因此,Tn-2 = 100-(100trE*) / (tr-C)
令 DR = 在步骤2确定的满应力MDMT状态多期望的降低值,即,DR = Tn-2,
所以: tn = (100trE*) / (100-DR) + C,也就是上面的公式
从公式的推导中可以看到,DR = Tn-2,tn是未知数,Tn对应于tn,也是未知数,那么,DR就同样是未知数。但在标准中,DR = 18-2 °F.=16°F. 其中18°F是根据表UCS-66采用直线内插法得到控制厚度为0.804in的未调整的MDMT.,不是新的厚度值tn. 所对应的未调整的MDMT值,所以,这是错误的。
在标准中,tn = 0.855in. 根据表UCS-66,控制厚度为0.855in的未调整的MDMT是 22°F,调弄整后的MDMT = 22-16 = 6°F,不是期望值2°F.
可见,在公式中,tn = (100trE*) / (100-DR) + C,同时存在两个未知数,对确定tn是不容易的。
假设封头直边段的最小厚度为0.953in,根据表UCS-66,控制厚度为0.9535in的未调整的MDMT 是28°F.
步骤3: 比值(trE*) / (tr-C) =0.74
步骤4: (1- Radio)100 = 100[1- (trE*) / (tr-C)] =26°F
步骤5: 调整后的MDMT = 28-26 =2°F为期望值,因此假设正确,tn = 0.953in

(删)

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