问题与解答
Replies to the Questions from the Attendance

整理:CACI秘书处 翻译:蒋智翔教授清华大学
Sorted out by CACI, Translated by Professor Jiang Zhixiang, Tsinghua University

2007年5月底,ASME分别在北京和上海举办了ASME规范和高温材料研讨会。现将与会者提出的49个问题及ASME总部的书面答复刊载如下,供读者参考。
In the end of May 2007, ASME held “ASME Pressure Vessel Codes and High Temperature Materials” in Beijing and Shanghai. Now we serial publish the 49 questions of attendee and its answers of ASME headquarters for the readers reference only.

材料,制造,ASME规范,设计,计算
Material,Manufacture,ASME Codes,Design,Calculation

  第一部分 材料 Part 1 Material
问题1-1:在锅炉材料性能验收时,高温持久性能如何检验,因为锅炉设计中,高温持久性能是确定许用应力的主要指标?
Q1-1:How to examine the high temperature strength limit of material in accepting the material used for constructing boiler in view of that the high temperature strength limit is the key parameter to determine the allowable stress in boiler design?
Answer:Tensile testing should be in accordance with the ASME material specification (SA-XXX or SB-XXX). The construction Codes do not provide additional tensile testing requirements.
答复:拉伸试验应符合ASME材料标准(SA-XXX or SB-XXX)的要求。产品规范不提出附加的拉伸试验要求。

问题1-2:按规范设计所使用的材料其冲击功值及冲击试验温度是如何给定的?如使用SA-516 Gr.70板,设备的设计温度分别为-30℃、-20℃、200℃,这时采购此材料时须提材料采购规范,那么采购规范应如何给出冲击值及冲击试验温度?
Q1-2: How to specify the impact energy and impact test temperature of the material in the Code? When using SA516 Gr.70, the design temperature of the item respectively is -30℃,-10℃ and 200℃ , according to the QC procedure ,it is necessary to prepare the purchasing specification, how to specify the impact energy and impact test temperature in the purchasing specification?
Answer:Follow the guidelines provided in the referenced general specification SA-20 section 4 Ordering Information para. 4.1.6 on impact test requirements.Impact testing requirements are covered in the construction Codes.E.g. SC VIII Fig. UCS-66 provides impact test exemptions.
答复:应按照在通用标准SA-20 第4卷“定购资料”4.1.6节内对冲击试验要求所提供的规定。在产品规范内也包含冲击试验要求。例如,第VIII卷图UCS-66 提供了免除冲击试验的情况。

问题1-3:ASME 2004版开始规定UNS N08811 (Incoloy 800HT)的许用应力在650℃以上开始,比2001版向下修正,其背景或原因是什么?
Q1-3:In ASME Edition 2004, the allowable stress of UNS N08811 (Incoloy 800HT) is specified from the temperature of 650 ℃ which is lower than that specified in Edition 2001. What is the background and reasons for this modification?
Answer:The revision was approved under tracking number 89-028.The "f" factor was applied which lowered the stress values. The "f" factor is referring to Favg from SC II-D Appendix 1.
答复:此修改是在编号89-028资料中认可的。系数“f”用于降低应力值的情况。系数“f”由第II-D卷附录1 的Favg得到的。

问题1-4:UNS N08811许用应力温度上限到898℃,实际在900℃以上工程实际应用很多,怎样考虑许用应力?
Q1-4: In allowable stress table in the code, the upper temperature limit of UNS N08811 is 898 ℃. However, in engineering practice, this material is often used at above 900 ℃. In that case, how to determine the allowable stress?
Answer:A request should be made to raise the max. temperature of applicability limit by providing data in accordance with Appendix 5 of SC II-D.
答复:在要求提高最高使用温度时,应提供出符合第II-D卷附录5要求的数据。

问题1-5:请问哪些牌号的镍基和难熔合金可用于950℃以上?
Q1-5:Which kind of nickel based alloy and refractory alloy can be used above 950℃?
Answer:Design questions which are consulting in nature cannot be answered by ASME.
答复:ASME不能回答有关性能的设计问题。

问题1-6:材料牌号是如何标记的?例如标准中级别为70(485)的材料,当采用公制单位时,其标记是SA516GR70还是SA516GR485?

Q1-6: How to mark the identification of material? For example, for Gr70 (485), when SI unit is used, shall the material be marked as SA516GR70 or SA516GR485?
Answer:When SI units are used, SA-516 Gr. 485 should be the designation provided. There is a SC II-D Note(g) to Table 1A which makes mention of dual unit specifications.
答复:当采用SI单位制时,所提供的标记应为SA-516 Gr. 485。在第II-D卷表1A的注(g)中给出了两种单位制的标准。

问题1-7:当异种钢焊接需热处理时,如何确定焊后热处理温度?如SA335 P11(No.4/1),SA335 P22(No.5A/1),SA335 P91(No.5B/2),异种钢材料的标称最低的温度不同,分别为650℃,675℃和705℃。当上述材料与碳钢(碳钢的热处理一般在600~650℃)焊接时,不能同时满足碳钢的温度上限与上述材料的温度下限的要求,如何协调热处理温度?
Q1-7: How to determine the Post Weld Heat Treatment temperature when the dissimilar steels are welded together?
For example, for SA335 P11(No.4/1),SA335 P22(No.5A/1),SA335 P91(No.5B/2), the minimum temperature is 650℃,675℃ and 705℃ respectively .When the above materials welded to CS (the heat treatment temperature is normally 600~650℃), the upper temperature limit of CS and the lower temperature limit cannot be satisfied at the same time. How to coordinate the final heat treatment temperature?
Answer:See UCS 56(c) which states, “When pressure parts with two different P-Number groups are joined by welding, the postweld heat treatment shall be that specified in either of Tables UCS-56 or UHA-32, with applicable notes, for material requiring the higher postweld temperature. When nonpressure parts are welded to pressure parts, the postweld heat treatment temperature of the pressure part shall control.”
答复:见UCS 56(c),其内容为“当两种不同P-No.的压力部件焊接在一起时,焊后热处理应按表UCS-56或UHA-32以及其有关的注内规定的较高焊后热处理温度的材料进行。当非受压部件与受压部件焊接时,应控制受压部件的焊后热处理温度。”

问题1-8:材料SA203 Grade D和E与Grade F有何差别?
Q1-8: What the difference among SA203 Grade D, E and Grade F?
Answer:SA-203 Grades E and F have the same chemical composition but all Grades (D, E, and F) have different mechanical properties (tensile and yield strength).
答复:SA-203 Grades E and F 材料具有相同的化学成分,但所有的级别(D, E和F)材料的机械性能(抗拉和屈服强度)是不同的。

问题1-9:ASME第 II卷表U、Y-1的注(b)规定:“无论ASME材料标准还是第I卷、第III卷或第VIII卷的规则都不要求对规范设备用产品材料做高温抗拉强度试验。如果进行这种试验,不要将这种试验结果与这些表中所列的强度值进行比较,来决定规范对材料是否验收/拒收。”请问:高温运行设备的材料力学性能如何考核?运行温度的力学性能试验是否要进行?是否可以只做室温力学性能试验?

Q1-9: Both in ASME section II table U and table Y-1 note b, there are specification: Whatever the material standard is section I, section III or section VIII, the high temperature tensile test is not required for the material used on the coded item. If this test been performed, do not determine the disposition (accept or reject) comparing the test value to the strength value shown on the table. How to qualify or certify the material physical property of the high temperature operating item? Is the physical property test of operation temperature required? Is it enough to only perform the physical property test at room temperature?
Answer: Same answer as Q1-1.Tensile testing should be in accordance with the ASME material specification (SA-XXX or SB-XXX). The construction Codes do not provide additional tensile testing requirements.
答复:答复与问题Q1-1相同。拉伸试验应符合ASME材料标准(SA-XXX or SB-XXX)的要求。产品规范不提出附加的拉伸试验要求。

问题1-10: GB6654中16MnR已被Code Case 2506采用,案例中规定P-No.1材料适用UCS 66.1 Curve A。请问对这材料中考虑冲击试验时,用应力降低MDMT,或者采用正火材料取csc-66中曲线D,这些是否适用?

Q1-10: In Code Case 2506, GB6654 16MnR has been accepted as P-No.1. For purpose of post weld heat treatment, it is considered that Curve A in UCS 66.1 fits for P-No.1. When taking into account impact test requirement, is it possible to reduce the MDMT using the ratio of stress? Or is it possible to use curve D in accordance with the fact that 16MnR is normalized?
Answer:Yes the provisions given in UCS-66(b) may be used to further reduce the MDMT from Fig. UCS-66. In addition if this material is produced to fine-grain practice and normalized it may be assigned to Curve B.
答复:是。UCS-66(b)中所给出的规定可用于从图UCS-66进一步降低MDMT。此外,如果材料加工成细颗粒和进行了正火,可取用曲线B。

问题1-11: ASME材料(如C.S,S.S)最低使用温度是否可查,是靠冲击试验来判定吗?
Q1-11: How to judge the minimum allowable temperature of the material (CS, SS), is anywhere specified? Or it is just dependent on impact test?
Answer:An impact test is usually sufficient. Also see section UCS-66, specifically paragraph (b), which provides under what conditions an impact test is not necessary. Figure UCS-66 provides the impact test exemption curves, with specified impact test exemption temperatures for different steels with varying thickness.The User specifies the operating conditions of the vessel from which one would determine the minimum design temperature (See UG-20(b).The MDMT at MAWP is established either by impact test, or via an exemption from impact testing as given in the applicable section of Section VIII, Division 1.
答复:一般来说一个冲击试验已足够。也可参阅UCS-66,尤其是(b)节。其中提供了不需要进行冲击试验的条件。图UCS-66提供了不需进行冲击试验的曲线,对具有不同厚度的不同钢材规定了不需进行冲击试验的温度。从用户规定的容器运行条件中可确定最低设计温度[见 UG-20(b)]。最高允许工作压力MAWP时的最低金属设计温度MDMT可由冲击试验确定,或按第VIII卷第一分册有关篇所规定的不需进行冲击试验的条件确定。
(未完待续,请见下期To be continued )

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