ASNT Recommended Practice for Nondestructive Testing Personnel Qualification and Certification (SNT-TC-1A) and Its Use

F. C. Berry, NDE manager, ChicagoBridge and Iron Company, Birminghan, Ala.35201.
作者:F. C. Berry 美国芝加哥桥梁钢铁公司NDT经理
Translated by Zhang Guocheng, Shanghai Power Station Auxiliary Equipment Works
翻译:张国城 上海电站辅机厂

The need for standardization of nondestructive testing personnel qualifications brought about the writing of American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) Recommended Practice for Nondestructive Testing Personnel Qualification and Certification (SNT-TC-1A). The choice of an organization to prepare such a document was based on ASNT’s prime interest and its membership being a cross-section representation of industry and government organizations within the United States.
ASNT Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A is a combination of various requirements taken from American government and industry specifications. This document is designed to be adapted by any user to fit a specific need.
ASNT offers an additional service of review or examination of personnel for the qualification as a Level III Nondestructive Testing person.
Nondestructive Testing, Standards, Qualifications, Documentation, Certification, Code Requirements, Written Tests.

In October 1966, the American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) published a document entitled Recommended Practice for Nondestructive Testing Personnel Qualification and Certification (SNT-TC-1A). The lettering on this document was based on ASNT’s name at that time. “S” for Society, “N” for Nondestructive, and “T” for Testing. The training was “T”, certification was “C” and 1A was the first document published by ASNT on this subject. Since its first publication as a recommended practice for personnel Qualification and Certification, many other organizations have accepted it for their use.
Within the last decade, nondestructive testing (NDT) in all its increased complexity has become a mandatory tool of industry. Customers use NDT to ensure receiving what they have specified. Reliability requirements of NDT have made it necessary for those performing NDT’s to be trained specifically and qualified for their tasks.
In the late 1950s, government, prime contractors, and fabricators wrote specifications with requirements for training and qualification of nondestructive personnel. Such specifications varied widely among the different writers. Suppliers on whom these specifications were imposed contractually found themselves involved in a variety of requirements as well as numerous audits. Meeting specifications was a common requirement of all concerned. Government and industry alike felt the need to establish standard guidelines for training and certification. A competent group to establish these guidelines was solicited by those with the common need. In 1961, ASNT, through its Technical Council, assigned a Task Group to study feasibility and preparations of a document to meet the need. In October 1966, the Personnel Qualification Division of the Technical Council generated and published the original ASNT Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A.
ASNT Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A was written in such a manner that any user could adapt it to his specific requirements. In time, the document was applied voluntarily by many manufacturers and suppliers as their method of qualifying and certifying personnel.In 1968, ASNT Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A was incorporated into the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Many users intending to meet code requirements made the common error of referring to their personnel as being qualified in accordance with ASNT Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A without full knowledge of the document’s recommendations. Reference to the document as a strict specification led to many errors of interpretation. The key to ASNT Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A as a usable document is in Paragraph 5, which instructs the user as follows:
5.0 Written Practice
5.1 The employer shall establish a written practice for the control and administration of NDT personnel training, examination and certification.
5.2 The employer’s written practice should describe the responsibility of each level of certification for determining the acceptability of materials or components in accordance with the applicable code, standards, specifications and procedures.
5.3 The employer’s written practice shall describe the training, experience and examination requirements for each level of certification.
5.4 The employer’s written practice shall be reviewed and approved by the employer’s NDT Level III.
5.5 The employer’s written practice shall be maintained on file.
【译】5.0 书面实施细则

The original ASNT Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A was published in October 1966 and was not revised except editorially until June 1975. The June 1975 revision took into account all of problems with interpretation of various paragraphs throughout the document, and an effort was made to clarify all areas where it was necessary.
The June 1975 ASNT Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A is for the qualification and certification of nondestructive testing personnel. It provides a format that industry can follow in writing procedures for the qualification and certification of personnel which meet the needs and requirements unique to each segment of industry.

The document contains recommended Practices for personnel qualification and certification by employers in the following nondestructive methods: radiography (RT)、 ultrasonic (UT)、eddy current (ET)、 leak testing (LT)、 magnetic particle (MT)、 liquid penetrant (PT)、and neutron radiography (NRT). Also included are recommended education、experience、and training requirements for the different testing methods. Supplementary documents currently available include: radiography (1971)、ultrasonic (1971)、eddy current (1968)、 magnetic particle (1971)、and liquid penetrant (1968),
New publications containing questions and answers for each of the seven methods listed in the June 1975 edition of ASNT Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A are in preparation. Until these are published, the questions and answers in these five documents are valid and available for use.

Documentation of Certification in a Particular Procedure
The point to remember here is the procedure, as written by any user of this document to satisfy the requirements of his company and be acceptable to his customer, should follow then recommendations contained in Paragraph 5 (stated earlier in the paper).

Certification will be as per Section 9.
9.1Certification of all levels of NDT personnel is the responsibility of the employer.
9.2Certification of NDT personnel shall be based on demonstration of satisfactory qualification in accordance with Section 6, 7 and 8, as described in the employer’s written practice.
9.3At the option of employer, an outside agency may be engaged to provide NDT Level III services. In such instances, the responsibility of certification of the employees shall be retained by the employer.
9.4Personnel certification records shall be maintained on file by the employer for the duration specified in the employer’s written practice and should include the following:
9.4.1Name of certified individual.
9.4.2Level of certification and NDT method.
9.4.3Educational background and experience of certified individuals.
9.4.4Statement indicating satisfactory completing in accordance with the employer’s written practice.
9.4.5Results of the vision examinations prescribed in 8.2 for the current certification period.
9.4.6Current examination copy(ies) or evidence of successful completion of examinations.
9.4.7Other suitable evidence of satisfactory qualifications when such qualifications are used in lieu of the specific examination prescribed in or as prescribed in the employer’s written practice.
9.4.8Composite grade(s) or suitable evidence of grades.
9.4.9Signature of the Level III that verified qualifications of candidate for certification.
9.4.10Date of certification and/or recertification and the date of assignments to NDT.
9.4.11Certification expiration date.
9.4.12Signature of employer’s certifying authority.
(1) All levels of NDT personnel shall be recertified periodically in accordance with one of the following criteria:
Evidence of continuing satisfactory performance.
Reexamination in those portions of the examinations in Section 8 deemed necessary by the employer’s NDT Level III.
Recommended maximum recertification intervals are:
Level I and II----3 years
Level III----------5 years
(3) NDT personnel may reexamined any time at the discretion of the employer and have their certificates extended or revoked.
(4) The employer’s written practice should include rules covering the duration of interrupted service that requires reexamination and recertification.
9.0 认证
9.3作为雇主的选择,一个外部代理机构可以从事提供NDT III级的服务。在这种情况下,对雇员的认证仍然是雇主的责任。
9.4.9鉴定认证申请人的III 级人员签名。
9.4.10 认证和/或重新认证的日期,和从事NDT的日期。
9.4.11 证书过期的日期。
9.4.12 雇主的认证授权签名。
(b)雇主的III 级人员认为必须按8.0节考试部分重新进行考试。
(a)I 级和II 级 ------3年
(b)III 级----------------5年

The employer may employ persons previously trained and certify them in accordance with Paragraph 10.0
10.1 The employer’s certification shall be deemed revoked when employment is terminated.
10.2 A Level I, Level II, or Level III whose certification has been terminated may be certified to the former NDT level by a new employer based on examination, as described in Section 8, provided all of the following conditions are met to the new employer’s satisfaction:
The employee has proof of prior certification.
The employee was working in the capacity to which certified within six (6) months of termination.
The employee is being recertified within six(6) months of termination.
Prior to being examined for certification, employees not meeting the above requirements should receive additional training as deemed appropriate by the NDT Level III.
10.2已经终止的I 级、II 级或III 级证书,倘若下列情况满足雇主的意愿,根据8.0节中叙述的考试可由新雇主认证到以前的等级。
认证考试前,雇员不满足上述要求应接受NDT III 级认为合适的附加培训。

It is intended that a qualified individual who is a certified Level III select from the list of questions and conduct an examination of employees under his supervision to ascertain that they have understood the training material in accordance with Paragraph 8.
This procedure is for the certification by the employer. ASNT currently is developing a supplemental program for certification of Level III personnel. This service will be offered and publicized upon the approval of the ASNT Board of Directors of a Level III plan.
Questions related to the use of June 1975 ASNT Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A are to be referred to the Technical Director, ASNT, 3200 Riverside Drive, Columbus, Ohio. When requested, formal answers will be made in writing to the inquirer with copies to the applicable code and standard groups. Clarifications in the use of ASNT Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A will be published periodically in Material Evaluation.
【译】考虑让持证III 级人员挑选试题并在他的监督下,按照第8节对雇员进行考试,以弄清他们对培训材料的理解。
这是雇主的认证规程。目前ASNT正在编制一份III 级人员认证的补充程序。一份III 级人员计划在ASNT董事会的批准后发布,并提供这项服务。

From the inception of the ASNT Personnel Qualification and Certification Program, first adopted and published in 1966, the Level III individual was intended to be the key to the complete program.
A Level III individual, by the ASNT concept, was expected to have the necessary experience, education, and background to establish the program for any company’s nondestructive testing needs. ASNT Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A was established as a reasonable guideline to assist a competent individual in establishing such a program. This requirement is stated clearly in Paragraph 5 of the original document.
【译】自1966年ASNT推荐实施细则SNT-TC-1A第一次公布和使用起,III 级人员就成为整个程序的关键。
在ASNT的概念中,III 级人员应具有必要的经历,教育背景和能为任何公司编制无损检测人员资格鉴定和认证规程。ASNT推荐实施细则SNT-TC-1A是帮助有能力的个人去制订这样一份程序的导则。在文件的第5节中已清楚地说明了这个要求。

The capabilities of a Level III individual, as outlined in ASNT Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A, have not changed appreciably since the original publication in 1966. The original paragraph reads as follows:
An NDT Level III individual should be capable of developing, qualifying, and approving procedures, establishing and approving techniques, interpreting codes, standards, specifications and procedures; and designating the particular NDT methods, techniques and procedures to be used. The NDT Level III should be responsible for the NDT operations for which qualified and assigned and should be capable of interpreting and evaluating results in terms of existing codes, standards and specifications. The NDT Level III should have sufficient practical background in applicable materials, fabrication and product technology to establish techniques and to assist in establishing acceptance criteria when none are otherwise available. The NDT Level III should have general familiarity with other appropriate NDT methods, as demonstrated by an ASNT Level III Basic examination or other means. The NDT Level III , in the methods in which certified, should be capable of training and examining NDT Level I and II personnel for certification in those methods.
【译】在1966年最早发布的ASNT推荐实施细则SNT-TC-1A中,所述的NDT III级人员的能力,到目前为止,没有明显的变化。该节对NDT III级人员的描述如下:
NDT III级人员应有能力编制、鉴定和审核规程。制订和审核技术。解释法规、标准、技术规范和规程;并能指定采用特殊的NDT方法、技术和规程。NDT III级人员应对其所鉴定和分派的NDT操作负责,并有能力根据现行法规,标准和技术规范解释和评定结果,NDT III级人员应有足够的有关材料、制造和产品工艺的实际知识。以便当没有有效标准时采用正确的探伤方法和协助制订验收标准。NDT III级人员应熟悉在NDT III级基础考试中出现的其它适合的NDT方法或其它检测手段。NDT III级人员应能在其所持证的方法上,对NDT I级和NDT II级人员进行培训,考试和认证。

Misuse of ASNT Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A in this particular area has been one of the main objections to its application. Most of the misuse has been by employers in certification of Level III individuals with inadequate documentation of education, experience, and training background of the individuals they have certified. Use of ASNT Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A to establish Level III individuals by decree, appointment, or appointment without properly documenting training, education, and experience is contrary to the intent of ASNT Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A in all respects.
【译】在这个特殊领域中,滥用ASNT推荐实施细则SNT-TC-1A已经是对它的应用的主要异议之一。大多数雇主滥用NDT III级人员认证,因为持证人的教育程度、经历和培训背景材料等文件不充分。在认可NDT III级人员时,采用任命或没有适当的培训、教育和经历的文件而任命III级人员。这都违背了ASNT推荐实施细则SNT-TC-1A的意图和目的。
ASNT has no power to police the use of ASNT Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A; however, in an effort to reduce the Level III problem, ASNT has struggled to develop solutions for more than five years. At the 1974 Fall Conference of ASNT, the Board of Directors voted to implement a program for certification of Level III personnel. Following the ASNT Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A concept, the Level III will be responsible for his company’s Level I and Level IINDT personnel. The decision of ASNT was to avoid any indications that they would become involved in certification of Level I and Level III NDT personnel. The Board of Directors of ASNT voted certifying only Level III personnel on a voluntary basis.
【译】美国无损检测学会没有权力去监督ASNT推荐实施细则SNT-TC-1A的使用;然而,可以努力去减少III级人员存在的问题。美国无损检测学会化了五年多时间制订了解决方案。在1974年秋季美国无损检测学会全体会议上。推举董事会贯彻执行III级人员认证程序。依据ASNT推荐实施细则SNT-TC-1A的概念,III级人员负责他的公司的NDT I级和NDT II级人员。美国无损检测学会的决定没有任何由学会认证NDT I级和NDT II级人员的暗示。董事会被推举认证的仅仅是在自愿基础上的III级人员。
Certification by ASNT of Level III personnel, after many hours of discussion, argument, and deliberation, has been deemed appropriate. The certification by ASNT of Level III will be for records of educational achievements, nondestructive testing experience, and either passing an examination or presenting for review by a select panel evidence of qualification acceptable to a set standard for grandfathering.
The plan of ASNT to assist all industry by certifying competent NDT Level III personnel for their use is expressed in an article written by the form President of ASNT, C. E. Lautzenheiser, and published in the May 1976 issue of Material Evaluation:
在1976年5月出版的《材料评价》上ASNT前任总裁的文章表明ASNT计划帮助所有行业认证称职的NDT III级人员。

Certification in accordance with the guidelines of SNT-TC-1A indicates that an employer has made a review of the individual’s qualifications and has accepted the responsibility for the Lever III activity of the person within the employer’s organization. It is very important to note that the word “Certification” indicates a record of achievement and/or qualification, in one case, and an acceptance of responsibility by management in the other case. Also, even though an employer uses ASNT services he can and probably will apply a specific examination requirement to insure that the Level III person is technically competent in the employer’s specific requirements. The major criticisms that have been leveled against ANT-TC-1A are that the requirements for a Level III individual are not definitive and that the individual can be certified without examination.
The intent of the ASNT program is to establish minimum standards for Level III personnel in each NDT discipline. It would be virtually impossible for any organization to establish and administer a Level III program in which a person could be qualified in the requirements of all individual applications. Therefore, it is still the responsibility of the employer to apply whatever specific requirements he deems necessary before certifying the individual in accordance with ASNT Recommended Practice SNT-TC1A.
The Board of Directors of ASNT has been grappling with this problem for more than ten years, and the reader can be assured that the views and opinions of many organizations and individuals have been considered and factored into the program. It is also a certainty that if ASNT does not establish such a program, programs will be established by other organizations over which ASNT has no control. This is one reason for the Board action, and another equally important reason is the desire to improve the professional image of ASNT, which was the primary goal established in the first Goals Conference in 1973. In implementing this program, ASNT is following the actions of many other major technical societies that certify personnel within the individual society’s expertise. Examples of that are certification of Corrosion Specialists, Quality Engineers, and Manufacturing Engineers.
【译】ASNT推荐实施细则SNT-TC-1A的意图是在每个NDT学科中制订 III级人员的最低标准。很明显,制订和管理III级人员申请资格鉴定要符合所有行业的要求是不可能的。所以,按照ASNT推荐实施细则SNT-TC-1A认证以前,雇主采用认为必要的专门要求,仍然是雇主的责任。

With this background, the following actions are under way, in the April 1976 newsletter is a summary of actions authorized by the ASNT Board of Directors. A permanent committee has been established, responsible to establish necessary polices and procedures for the Level III Certification Program. This committee, like all other standing committees, is chaired by a member of the Board, is responsible to the Board, and its actions require Board approval. The committee members were chosen carefully to represent diverse segments of industry and education. This committee held an organization and planning meeting during the Spring Conference and another meeting in early May. The principal tasks facing this committee are finalizing the procedures for Level III Certification by examination and maintaining the program in the future. Also it must decide on answers for these important questions: how often should individuals require recertification, and what are the requirements for recertification ?
The most immediate action under this program is to establish a Review Board and to start accepting and applications for Level III certification. The first Review Board is hoped to be in operation by midsummer, but not later than 1 Sept. 1976. Although much activity is involved in getting organized, the first concrete action that is planned is to have the Review Board act on applications of volunteers from the Board of Directors, This will serve as a tryout of the program. The requirements for Level III Certification without examination are quite stringent, and, therefore, Review Board members must be of an even higher caliber. For example, some of the requirements for a Review Board member are 20 years experience in NDT, competence in more than one NDT discipline, and management experience. It has been quite difficult to find Review Board members with the required qualifications who also would be backed by their companies for the necessary travel and meetings.
【译】在这个程序指导下,马上采取的行动是成立一个审核局,并开始接受和处理 III级人员的认证申请。首先审核局希望在1976年9月1日前的仲夏运作。虽然有许多组织工作,计划的第一个具体工作是审核局面对来自董事会的自愿申请人。这作为程序的一次试运转。III级人员不考试认证是很严格的。所以,审核局成员必须是高水平的。例如要求审核局成员有20年无损检测经历。有能力从事多种无损检测学科和有管理经历。并且他们的公司必须支持他们必要的外出开会。寻找这样的审核局成员是非常困难的。
The Board of Directors established a time limit of six months for accepting applications for Level III Certification without examination; the six-month period will start after a suitable information program has reached potential candidates through our media and the media of related organizations.
It is obvious that there is great interest in what the requirements for Level III without examination are and when the application form will become available. The first part of this is relatively easy to answer. The requirements for Level III Certification without examination are summarized as follows:

Experience Requirements for Certification without Examination
The basic requirements are that the applicant must furnish evidence of a High School education or equivalent and have a minimum of fifteen years of progressive qualifying experience. This experience may apply to one or more methods of NDT simultaneously by determination of Review Board and based upon the applicant’s submitted experience record. Certain professional and educational attainments (limited to only one of those listed below) can be substituted for experience as follows:
Six year’ maximum credit for Professional Engineering Registration in any state.
Five year’ maximum credit for a Bachelor of Science or higher degree in Engineering, Science, or Physics.
Four year’ maximum credit for successful completion of an Engineer-in-Training written examination in any state.
Three year’ maximum credit for a Baccalaureate Degree from a College or University curriculum of a technological nature.
One-year credit for each full year successfully completed in an Engineering or Science curriculum in a University, College, Post-Secondary Vocational, or Technical School with a maximum of two year’ total credit.
One-year credit for each full year successfully completed in a Vocational or TechnicalSchool offering a curriculum in Nondestructive Testing. Successful completion of a two-year curriculum in Nondestructive Testing may gain an additional one-year credit.
Four year’ maximum credit for teaching Nondestructive Testing in a University, College, Vocational, or TechnicalSchool.
Four year’ maximum credit for teaching or developing courses for commercial organizations.

References required
At least four references are required; it is desirable but not mandatory that the individuals selected as references be ASNT Fellows or Registered Professional Engineers. At least two must have nondestructive testing experience and have direct knowledge of the applicant’s professional character and accomplishments.

Code of Ethics
Applicants must acknowledge and abide by a separate Code of Ethics if certified by ASNT. Failure to do so can be grounds for revocation of certification.

The maximum fees for certification without examination will be $60.00 for the first NDT method in which anapplicant seeks certification, and $15.00 for each additional method.

Applications for certification are now available upon request from ASNT Headquarters.

In summation, the following actions were taken by the Board of Directors with regard to certification:
Approved a Level III Greadfathering program as developed by the AdHcc Select Committee. This program will certify that presented evidence of education, training, and experience meets or exceeds minimum standards established by the Society.
Affirmed that this certification is not that stated in SNT-TC-1A.
Affirmed that Certification Programs for Level I and Level II personnel are not being considered.
Authorized immediate establishment of a program for Level III Certification without examination with a starting date of September 1 at the latest.
Established a six month time period for acceptance of applications for certification without examination.
Approved membership of the Standing Committee for Level III Training and Certification.
明确认定I级和II 级人员认证程序没有考虑。

The program described here is offered to industry for its use on a voluntary basis. Regardless of whether the Level III individual is certified by ASNT or by the employer, successful implementation is still dependent upon the Level III as the key individual.
A small company or a large company with a small NDT operation requiring a simple NDT program may need an entirely different qualification program for its Level III personnel than the more complex needs of a company or industry requiring NDT to its maximum capabilities. The smaller company, for example, may have an operation that is confined to no more than one or two NDT methods. These methods may only be applicable to the product using simple procedures. This type of operation requires a lesser degree of training and experience than a more complex operation.
The more complex operation may involve four, five, or more NDT methods being pushed to their limits for controlling quality and providing NDT results. Where NDT is in such demand the qualification and certification program for Level I and II personnel must be designed to assure that personnel performing the NDT work are qualified. In either case, a Level III individual is needed to establish the NDT personnel qualification and certification program for his company using ASNT Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A as it was intended originally to be used and is stated at the beginning of this paper.
较复杂的操作可以有4种,5种或更多的NDT方法。以推动控制质量和提供NDT结果的范围。在NDT有这样要求的地方,对I级和II 级人员的资格鉴定和认证,必须保证操作NDT的人员是资格鉴定合格的。不论发生那种情况,都要求III级人员必须按照ASNT的最初的意图,根据ASNT推荐实施细则SNT-TC-1A来制订公司的NDT人员资格鉴定和认证程序。在本文一开始就已说明。

The only policing power for the correct use of ASNT Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A remains with the purchaser. NDT services are now very much a part of contractual obligations. The vendor surveillance program is geared to audit the programs outlined by the Level III individuals to cover NDT personnel. The customer, through his surveillance of the supplier, ensures that the Level III individual is providing the NDT services required by the purchaser’s specification.
The success or failure of the ASNT certification program or any othercertification program will depend upon joint acceptance by both producer and customer.
选自1977年6月无损检测标准评论STP624 ASTM

译后语:ASNT推荐实施细则SNT-TC-1A是在ASME规范产品使用ASME钢印授权证书取证过程中使用的重要导则。本文发表在ASTM 1977年出版的无损检测标准评论一书中。它讲述了ASNT推荐实施细则SNT-TC-1A的出台和应用中的关键问题。对ASME取证单位正确使用ASNT推荐实施细则SNT-TC-1A有很大帮助。

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