关于“indication”一词(节选)
About word “indication”
张国城 ZHANG Guocheng
上海无损检测学会 Shanghai Society of Nondestructive Testing

本文就indication一词在NDT中的译法进行探讨。
This paper discusses translating “indication” into Chinese meaning in NDT
指示,射线照相检验,超声波检验,磁粉检验,液体渗透检验
Indication,RT,UT,MT,PT

前言:
         在ASME锅炉及压力容器规范中indication一词出现非常频繁。在第V卷无损检验第30章SE-1316“无损检测标准术语汇总”中对indication的定义如下:
         Indication ---- The response or evidences from a nondestructive examination that requires interpretation to determine relevant.
         指示 ---- 在无损检验中要求解释,以决定是否相关的响应或形迹(迹象)。
         在GB/T 12604.1(UT),12604.2(RT),12604.3(PT)中也有定义:
         指示 ---- 在无损检测中需对其重要性做出解释的响应或形迹。

         目前我们在ASME规范翻译中indication译成指示、影像、信号、磁痕、显示、示像等等,CACI专家认为有必要把牵涉面较广的术语译法确定下来,提高译文质量,统一文风。在术语概念上把ASME规范定义协调一致,又与国内行业习惯用法不发生矛盾。因此本文就indication 一词作如下讨论:

1.SE-1316适用范围中1.3中的叙述
 (原文)
As shown on the chart below ,when nondestructive testing produces an indication ,the indication is subject to interpretation as false , non-relevant , or relevant. If it has been interpreted as relevant, the necessary subsequent evaluation will result in the decision to accept and reject the material.
【译文】正如下图所示,当无损检测出现指示时,经解释断定为假的,非相关的或相关的。假如解释为相关的,继而必须评定,以做出验收和拒收材料的结论。
 (译注)原文叙述在无损检测时其最终目的是得到验收或拒收材料的结论。在无损检验的过程中会发现一些响应和形迹,称之为指示。原文indication是名词,它的动词是indicate。Indication的主要解释有(1)指示指出表示表明预示暗示;(2)指标征候迹象。词干dic是讲述指示的意思。而显示译为show(v),showing(n);display(v),displaying(n);demonstrate(v),demonstration(n);manifest(v),manifestation(n)。而没有indication一词。因此笔者认为在指示显示之际选择,还是译为指示好。因为在汉语中,指示的名词感觉比较重一点,而且有迹象的含义,这就更符合其定义的含义。

2.超声波检验中出现的indication具有二个译法
(原文)
The material shall be acoustically similar to the material to be examined and free of discrete ultrasonic indications greater than twice the amplitude of the acoustic noise level.
【译文】该材料应具有被检材料相类似的声学性能,且没有大于噪声水平幅度二倍的个别的超声信号。
(译注)这里的indications 译成指示也未尚不可。但从超声波检验技术来判断,它是一个来自反射体的信号(signal),而这个信号是以其幅度来度量大小的,而不是长度。因此这里比较直观的是在示波屏上看到一个信号,而不是指示

(原文)Place the transducer over the 18mm test distance hole and adjust the Gain control to obtain a signal of 75% of the screen height. Mark the indication height on the CRT screen.
【译文】把探头放在测试距离为18mm的孔的上方,并调节增益控制器获得波幅为屏高75%的信号。把信号高度在示波屏上做上记号。
(译注)这里上句用signal,下句用indication实际都是一个波形信号。因此把indication译成信号更为合适。

(原文)Using the sensitivity thus established and by adjusting the Distance Amplitude Correction control,mark the sweep to peak optimized indications for the remaining holes on the CRT screen.
【译文】采用如此设定的灵敏度和通过调节距离波幅校准控制器,把其余孔的信号的最佳峰值在示波屏上做上记号。
(译注)这里把optimized indications 译成最佳的信号是合理的。如果译成最佳的指示,就不易理解了。

(原文)Draw a line on the CRT screen parallel to the sweep line at 25% of the screen height. This will be the reference level for reporting indication amplitude.
【译文】在示波屏上画一根在扫描线上方为屏高25%的平行线,这就是报告信号幅度的参考水平。
(译注)这里的indication amplitude 只能是信号幅度。它超出了参考水平(线),就是要调查研究的信号。译成指示幅度就比较别扭了。

(原文)Additional information regarding any ultrasonic indication may be obtained through the use of other frequencies, types or transducers.
【译文】有关任何超声波信号的附加信息可以通过使用其他频率,波型或探头获得。
(译注)这里ultrasonic indication 译成超声波信号,如译成超声波指示就有些不妥了。

(原文)Position an angle beam search unit on a calibration block, as shown in fig 1, so that indication from both the 1/2 and 3/4T holes give a 2:1 ratio of amplitudes between the two indications.
【译文】如图1所示,把一个斜探头放在一块校验试块上,从1/2和3/4T上的孔获得二个信号之间波幅比例为2:1的信号。

(原文)Adjust the sensitivity(gain)so that the larger indication is set at 80% of full screen height (FSH)
【译文】调节灵敏度(增益)控制器使较大的信号设定在满屏高(FSH)的80%处。
(译注)上述二段都是叙述示波屏上的信号,因此把indication from both 1/2and 3/4T hole 译成来1/2和3/4T孔的指示就不妥了。这里larger indication 是指二个信号中较大的信号

(原文)Imperfections which produce a response greater than 20% of the reference level shall be investigated to the extent that the operator can determine the shape, identity,and location of all such imperfections and evaluated them in terms of the acceptance standards given in (a) and (b)below.
         a)Indications characterized as cracks, lack of fusion, or incomplete penetration are unacceptable regardless of length.
         b)Other imperfections are unacceptable if the indications exceed the reference level amplitude and have lengths which exceed:
          1) 1/4in. (6mm) for t up to 3/4in. (19mm)
          2) 1/3 t for t from 3/4in. to 2-1/4in. (19mm to 57mm)
          3) 3/4in. (19mm) for t over 2-1/4in. (57mm)
【译文】瑕疵产生的信号(响应)大于参考水平的20%应进行调查研究, 使操作者能确定所有这些瑕疵的形状, 性质和位置, 并根据下列验收标准(a)和(b)进行评定。
         a)具有裂缝,未熔合或未焊透特征的信号,不论其指示长度均应拒收。
         b)假如信号幅度超过参考水平,且其指示长度超过以下规定的其它瑕疵为不合格。
          1) 厚度小于3/4in.(19mm),1/4in.(6mm)长,
          2) 厚度3/4in. 至2-1/4in.(19mm至57mm),1/3t,
          3) 厚度大于2-1/4in.(57mm), 3/4in.(19mm)长。
(译注)上述瑕疵产生的信号用response,而(a)中裂缝产生的信号用indication 。尔后提出不论长度均应拒收,那末信号大小是波幅,只有指示大小才是长度。因此这里用indications 在汉语中可用二个词来解释,即信号指示。在(b)中indications 也与(a)中一样,超过参考水平译成信号,而超过长度译成指示。

(原文)Linear indication:
         All indication resulting from tears or cracks and all indications exceeding the 25% reference level such as would result from stringer type slag inclusions.
【译文】线性指示:
         由裂纹或裂缝引起的所有信号和例如来自条状夹渣的超过25%参考水平的所有信号。
(译注)这里linear indication 从定义上看它指的是来自裂缝等反射体引起的信号,但是这里的不连续都是线性的。因此linear indication 宜译成线性指示,表示来自线性不连续的信号。线性信号是指该信号具有线性,例如降低6db 信号下降1/2。因此不能译成线性信号

(原文)Non-Linear indication:
(1) All isolated indications that exceed the limits listed for the appropriate Quality Level in Table 1. As isolated indication shall be defined as one in which the distance between it and an adjacent indication is greater than the longest dimension of the larger indication.
【译文】非线性指示:
(1)超过表1中列出的相适应的质量等级的极限的所有单个信号。所谓单个信号应该是一个信号与邻近的信号距离大于较大信号的最长指示尺寸。
(译注)这里isolated indication 译为单个信号。 Adjacent indication 译为邻近的信号。而larger indication 应译为较大的信号。Longest dimension指二个信号中一个较大信号所具有的最长指示尺寸,一词有二个意思。

(原文)(2)All indications which have a through wall distance greater than 1/3T,where T is the wall thickness in the area containing the indication.
【译文】穿过壁的距离大于1/3T的所有信号。这里T是指该信号区的壁厚。
(译注)这里指1/3T以后的信号均属非线性指示所产生的信号。

(原文)(3)Any locations where the back reflection (normally off screen) drops below 75% of the screen height and exceeds the area of the applicable Quality Level, regardless of back reflection can be resolved as not being caused by an indication.
【译文】任何位置的底波反射(通常超出示波屏)。降至屏高的75 %以下和超过有关质量水平的区域的信号,不管波幅高低,(都作为非线性指示来处理)除非有理由解答不是由于一个不连续的存在而引起的。
(译注)这里All indications 译为所有信号。not being caused by an indication 译为不是由于指示(不连续)的存在而引起的,这里指示实际是不连续。

(原文)(4)Clustered indications which exceed the limits listed for appropriate Quality Level in Table 1. Clustered indications shall be defined as two or more indications where are defined in a 25mm(1in.) cube.
【译文】超过表1列出的相适应的质量等级的极限的密集信号。密集信号是指在1立方英寸内有二个或更多的信号。
(译注)这里指出非线性指示的密集信号作非线性指示处理。

(原文)(5)Clustered indications which exceed the limits listed for the appropriate Quality Level in Table 1 where the distance between indications is less than the longest dimension of the largest indication in the group.
【译文】超过表1列出的相适应的质量等级的极限的密集信号。密集信号是指二个信号之间距小于该群信号中最大信号的最长指示长度的尺寸。
(译注)这里Clustered indications译为密集信号。the distance between indications译为二个信号之间的距离。the largest indication in the group译为该群信号中最大信号。而the longest dimension译为最长指示长度的尺寸,而不是不连续的实际尺寸。

(原文)Table 1 Acceptance criteria for isolated and clustered indications. Such as :Maximum area of isolated Non-linear indications is 32mm2(0.05in2.)and clustered indications is 64mm(0.10in.) in Quality Level 1 location E.
【译文】表1 单个和密集信号的验收标准。例如质量等级1级位置E的单个非线性指示的信号的最大面积为32mm2(0.05in2.)和密集非线性指示的信号的最大面积为64mm2(0.10in.2)。
(译注)在单个信号和密集信号的验收标准中,都用面积来度量而不是用长度来度量。因此不能译成单个非线性信号,而是非线性指示的信号

(原文)Any discontinuity indication causing a total loss of back reflection which cannot be contained within a circle, the diameter of which is 3in. (75mm) or one half of the plate thickness, whichever is greater is unacceptable.
【译文】任何能引起底面反射信号全部消失的不连续的信号,而其范围又不能被直径为3in. (75mm)或板厚之半(取其中的较大值)画成的圆所包围,都是不能验收的。
(译注)这里discontinuity indication译为不连续的信号。不能译为不连续的指示

(原文)Indications which are equal to or exceed that obtained from a 0.25in. diameter flat bottomed hole in a calibration test piece of thickness equal to the defect depth are unacceptable,
Indications which are equal to or exceed those obtained from a 60 deg. V-notch 1in. long and having a depth not greater than 5% of the nominal wall thickness in a test piece are unacceptable.
No indications larger than some percentage of the reference back reflection.
【译文】信号等于或超过来自厚度等于缺陷深度的试块中的0.25in. 直径平底孔的信号为不合格。
信号等于或超过来自试块中的1in.长, 深度不大于公称壁厚5%的600 V型槽的信号为不合格。
不允许有大于参考底面反射的一定百分率的信号。
(译注)这里指出信号等于或超过试块中反射体的信号为不合格。

3. 射线照相检验中出现的indication
(原文)
Indications shown on the radiographs of welds and characterized as discontinuities are unacceptable under the following condition.
        Any indication characterized as a crack or zone of incomplete fusion or penetration.
        Any other linear indication which has length greater than:
        (a)1/4 inch for t up to 3/4 inch.
        (b)1/3 t for t from 3/4 inch to 2-1/4 inch.
        (c)3/4 inch for t over 2-1/4 inch
(略)

(原文)3. Any group of aligned indications that have an aggregate length greater than t in a length of 12 t, except when the distance between the successive discontinuities exceeds 6L, where L is the length of the longest discontinuity in the group.
        4. Rounded indications is excess of that specified by the acceptance standards given in the referencing standard.
(略)

(原文)5. Terminology
        (1) linear indications----crack, incomplete fusion, inadequate penetration, and slag are represented on the radiograph as linear indications in which the length is more than three times the width.
        (2) Rounded indications-----porosity and inclusions such as slag or tungsten are represented on the radiograph as rounded indications with a length three times the width or less. These indications may be circular elliptical, or irregular in shape, may have tail, and may vary in density.
(略)

4.磁粉检验中出现的indication
(原文)
1. Evaluation of indications
        Indications will be revealed by retention of magnetic particles. All such indications are not necessarily imperfections, however, since excessive surface roughness, magnetic permeability variations (such as at the edge of heat affected zones) etc., may produce similar indications.
        An indication of an imperfection may be larger than the imperfection that causes it, however, the size of the indication is the basis for acceptance valuation. Only indications which have any dimension greater than 1/16in.(1.6mm)shall be considered relevant.
        a) A linear indication is one having a length greater than three times the width.
        b) A rounded indication is one of circular or elliptical shape with a length equal to or less than three times its width.
        c) Any questionable or doubtful indications shall be reexamined to determine whether or not they are relevant.
2.Acceptance standards
        These acceptance standards shall apply unless other more restrictive standards are specified for specific materials or applications within this division.
        All surfaces to be examined shall be free of:
        a )relevant linear indications.
        b) relevant rounded indications greater than 3/16in.(4.8mm).
        c) four or more relevant rounded indications in a line separated by 1/16in.(1.6mm) or less, edge to edge.
(略)

(原文)1. Castings
        Maximum acceptable indications are as follows:
        a) Linear Indications
        1) 0.3in. long for materials up to 0.5in.thick
        2) 0.5in. long for materials 0.5in. to 1in. thick.
        3) 0.7in. long for materials over 1.inthick.
        For linear indications, the indications must be separated by a distance greater than the length of an acceptable indication. A linear indication is one with length in excess of 3 times the width.
        b)Rounded Indications
        1)0.3in. diameter for materials up to 0.5in. thick
        2)0.5in. diameter for materials over 0.5in. thick
        Four or more rounded indications in a line separated by 0.06in. or less edge to edge are unacceptable. Rounded indications are those which are not defined as linear indications.
2. Forgings and Rolled or Wrought Material
        Maximum acceptable indications are as follows:
        a) Linear Indications
        1) 0.2in. long for materials 0.5in.thick or less thick
        2) 0.4in. long for materials over 0.5in to 1in. thick.
        3) 0.6in. long for materials over 1in. thick
        For linear indications, the indications must be separated by a distance greater than the length of an acceptable indication. A linear indication is one with length in excess of 3 times the width.
        b)Rounded Indications
        1) 0.2in. diameter for materials up to 0.5in. thick
        2) 0.3in. diameter for materials over 0.5in. thick
        Four or more rounded indications in a line separated by 0.06in. or less edge to edge are unacceptable. Rounded indications are those which are not defined as linear indications.
(略)

5.液体渗透检验中出现的indication
(原文)
1. Evaluation of indications
        An indication of an imperfection may be larger than the imperfection that causes it, however, the size of the indication is the basis for acceptance evaluation. Only indications with major dimensions greater than 1/16in. shall be considered relevant.
        a) A linear indication is one having a length greater than three times the width.
        b) A rounded indication is one of circular or elliptical shape with the length equal to or less than three times the width.
        c)Any questionable or doubtful indications shall be reexamined to determine whether or not they are relevant.
2. Acceptance standards
        These acceptance standards shall apply unless other more restrictive standards are specified for specific materials or applications within this Division.
        All surfaces to be examined shall be free of:
        a) relevant linear indications,
        b) relevant rounded indications greater than 3/16in.(4.8mm),
        c) four or more relevant rounded indications in a line separated by 1/16in.(1.6mm) or less(edge to edge).
(略)

(原文)1. Castings
        Maximum acceptable indications are as follows:
        a) Linear Indications
        1) 0.3in. long for materials up to 0.5in.thick
        2) 0.5in. long for materials 0.5in. to 1in. thick.
        3) 0.7in. long for materials over 1.inthick.
        For linear indications, the indications must be separated by a distance greater than the length of an acceptable indication. A linear indication is one with length in excess of 3 times the width.
        b) Rounded Indications
        1) 0.3in. diameter for materials up to 0.5in. thick
        2)0.5in. diameter for materials over 0.5in. thick
        Four or more rounded indications in a line separated by 0.06in. or less edge to edge are unacceptable. Rounded indications are those which are not defined as linear indications.
2. Forgings and Rolled or Wrought Material
        Maximum acceptable indications are as follows:
        (a) Linear Indications
        1) 0.2in. long for materials 0.5in.thick or less thick
        2)0.4in. long for materials over 0.5in to 1in. thick.
        3)0.6in. long for materials over 1in. thick
        For linear indications, the indications must be separated by a distance greater than the length of an acceptable indication. A linear indication is one with length in excess of 3 times the width.
        (b) Rounded Indications
        1)0.2in. diameter for materials up to 0.5in. thick
        2)0.3in. diameter for materials over 0.5in. thick
        Four or more rounded indications in a line separated by 0.06in. or less edge to edge are unacceptable. Rounded indications are those which are not defined as linear indications.
(略)

6.结束语
        中西方文化上的差异在翻译上的反映由来已久,不过人们的共识是英译中一定要保持原文的含义。一句话可以有几种说法,可能是一个意思。英译中可能有几种译法,但不能违反它的本意。我们在这里讨论indication一词在无损检验中的应用,不能要求英语一个词只能有一种解释,而是应尽可能缩小范围,不要天南海北,各持已见,把一个词限定在术语的定义范围内。汉语信号一词,英语就有signal、indication、response等不同的用法,一部英语巨著有几部译文版本也是常有的事。

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