对ASME Ⅷ-1(2004版)译文的一些建议
Some Suggestion on Translation of ASME Code Ⅷ-1 (2004)(节选)
丁伯民DING Bomin
华东理工大学East China University of Science and Technology(Shanghai 200237)

在本文中,将与2004版ASME Ⅷ-1的译者和读者就其翻译情况进行一些探讨和建议。
In this paper, a reference to some discussion and suggestion recommended on translation of ASME Code Ⅷ-1(2004) will be given to the translator and some readers.
翻译,2004版ASME Ⅷ-1,建议
translation; ASME Ⅷ-1(2004); suggestion

        ASME Ⅷ-1(2004版)译文在2001版的基础上,对部分常用的名词术语译法作了统一,又在委托翻译协议书中对翻译质量提出了具体要求, 应该说质量较2001版又有所提高。但由于全书由不同人员分工翻译、校对,各人认识、习惯不同,不可否认, 还存在一些可予商讨之处。兹提出一些粗浅看法和建议,供译校人员和同行专家参考。
        从2001版起分工由笔者翻译的部分,对98版及以前各版中的一些可商讨之处,已向当时的校对提出并做出修改,详见文[1]。本文系指除此之外的建议。

、由名词术语译法统一所引起者
        早在2004年初,CACI秘书处就以文件形式将第Ⅷ卷译校人员座谈会上的记录并经与会人员审阅后的统一译法分发各有关译校人员,并“望在翻译第Ⅷ卷时遵照执行”。由于种种原因, 2004版的译文并未切实贯彻。鉴于全册由不同人员译校,因部分人员遵照执行,部分人员未予执行,反造成了全书的不一致,在一定程度上影响了质量。其中主要的有以下一些(中文为统一的译法,括弧中为2004版的译法):

rupture disk

爆破片(安全膜)

construction

建造;结构(制造)

forming

成形(成型)

general

总则(概述)

cladding

覆层(复层)

machine

机加工(加工)

calculated pressure

计算得的压力(计算压力)

deviation from circular form

圆形偏差(不圆度)

        虽然有可能统一的名词术语译法不一定十分理想,但是,讨论、且审阅后下发的通知应予遵照执行。建议CACI秘书处找机会再沟通下,对已下发的统一译法或有不尽达意者、或另有补充者再次完善。

二、对某些译文的商榷和相应的建议
        以下所列, 是指2004版译文不符原文原意, 致会造成误解甚至出错而可予讨论者。

1)UG-80(b)原文为The shell of a completed vessel to operate under external pressure shall meet the following requirements at any cross section.
2004及以前版译为:完工容器的壳体在受外压操作时,任何截面处的不圆度应满足下列要求。
外压壳体在完工后的形状允差应有二方面的要求,即不圆度(out-of-roundness,表示最大与最小直径之差),以及实际形状与真正圆形之间的最大正、负偏差e值(The maximum plus-or minus deviation from the true circular form),规范对此二者规定了用不同的测量方法和允差。此处并不仅指不圆度而指上述二者,且文中也并无“不圆度”之意。
建议译为:完工容器的壳体在受外压操作时,任何横截面处应满足下列要求。

2)图UG-80.1,原文为:Maximum permissible deviation from a circular form e for vessels under external pressure
2004及以前版译为:外压容器的最大允许不圆度“e
见第(1)条的分析。此图系指与真正圆形最大正、负偏差的允许值e,而不是指不圆度。不圆度则用(Dmax-Dmin)值表示。
建议译为:外压容器的最大允许圆形偏差“e”

3)UG-80(b)(3)(b)原文为:For vessel with longitudinal lap jointst is the nominal plate thickness and the permissible deviation is t+e.
2004及以前版译为:对于纵向搭接容器,t=公称板厚加上允许偏差,即t+e
对于外压壳体实际形状与真正圆形之间的最大正、负偏差e值,在测量和评定中都要用到壳体的公称度t值。此处专指带有纵向搭接接头容器的t值确定。原文意思是,带有纵向搭接接头的容器,t为公称板厚,允许偏差为t+e。联系在UG-80(b)(2)中对允许偏差的规定,则

对图UG-80.1

曲线以上的点,允许偏差=t+1.0t=2t

曲线以下的点,允许偏差=t+0.2t=1.2t

曲线范围内的点,允许偏差=t+(0.2~1.0)t=(1.2~2)t

照2004及以前版本的译法,为了确定t,必须知道e;而为知道e,又必须知道t,进入逻辑死循环。
建议译为:带有纵向搭接接头的容器,t为公称板厚, 允许偏差为t+e。

4)UG-80(a), 原文为:The inner surface of a torispherical, toriconical, hemispherical, or ellipsoidal head shall not deviate outside of the specified shape by more than 11/4% of D nor inside the specified shape by more than 5/8% of D, where D is the nominal inside diameter of the vessel shell at point of attachment.
关于这一段内容(Ⅷ-2的AF-135节和此段内容相同),笔者已在文[4]中对2001及以前各版的译法提出个人意见,也许译、校者并不同意笔者的意见,故在2004版仍保持原译。经笔者再三阅读,仍谨以文[4]的拙见供译、校者参考, 或有不同意见时也可撰文讨论。
5)UG-83,原文为:for plates not exceedingin. (8mm) in thickness, ……
2004及以前版译为:若板材厚度小于in.(8mm),……
不大于和小于二者之间是有区别的,特别是在规范中所用的表述,更为严格。
建议译为:若板材厚度不大于in.(8mm),……

6)UG-84(c)(2), 原文为:The standard (10mm×10mm) specimens, when obtainable, shall be used for nominal thickness of in.(11mm) or greater, except as otherwise permitted in (c)(2)(a) below.
2004及以前版译为:对公称板厚不小于in.(11mm),取尽可能大试样,标准试样为10mm×10mm,下面 (c)(2)(a)所允许的除外。
译文并未正确传达原文“尽可能取10mm×10mm标准试样”之意,而仅突出了尽可能取大试样。
建议译为:对公称板厚不小于in.(11mm)者,尽可能取10mm×10mm的标准试样,下面(c)(2)(a)所允许的除外。

7)UG-84(c)(4)(b),原文为:The applicable minimum lateral expansion opposite the notch……
2004及以前版译为:其缺口相对部位处的最小横向膨胀……
“缺口相对部位处”的涵义是含糊的。
建议译为:合适的缺口背面部位处的最小横向膨胀……

8)UG-84(c)(5)(a), 原文为:the test shall be conducted at a temperature lower than the minimum design metal temperature30 by the amount show in Table UG-84.2 for that specimen width.
2004及以前版译为:则试验温度应比最小设计金属温度低30,其值见表UG-84.2试样缺口宽度所对应的值。
原文系指试验温度应比最低设计金属温度为低,其所低的值见表UG-84.2试样缺口宽度所对应的值。从译文的中文语法理解,此处“其值”并非指比最小设计金属温度所低的值而是指试验温度,所以和原文意思不符而可能引起误解。
建议译为:则试验温度应比最低设计金属温度为低30,其所低的值见表UG-84.2试样缺口宽度所对应的值。
9)UG-84(h)(3), 原文为:Two sets of impact specimens shall be taken from the weld with one set located near〔withinin.(1.5mm)〕the surface of one side of the material and one set taken as near as practical midway between the surface and center of thickness of the opposite side as described in (g) above.
2004及以前版译为:两组冲击试样应靠近材料一侧表面〔in.(1.5mm)以内〕取样,一组如上面(g)所述在另一侧表面与厚度中心两者中间部位取样。
译文使用户不清楚究竟还要取两组还是三组试样;也不清楚其中两组试样是在材料一侧表面重叠取还是在材料两侧表面分别取。其实原文清楚地表明还要取两组试样,并说明了每一组试样的取样位置。
建议译为:两组冲击试样应取自焊缝,其中一组应靠近材料一侧表面〔in.(1.5mm)以内〕, 一组如上面(g)所述在另一侧表面与厚度中心两者间尽可能靠近中间部位处取样。

10)UG-99(h), 原文为:the metal temperature during hydrostatic test be maintained at least 30℉(17℃) above the minimum design metal temperature, but need not exceed 120℉(48℃),……
2004及以前版译为:金属温度在液压试验期间至少保持在最小设计温度以上30℉(17℃),……
由于最低设计金属温度随操作条件而定,加上30℉(17℃)后有可能达到较高数值,从图UCS-66的判别,在此温度时任何厚度的材料都不可能发生脆断而不需要做冲击试验。所以漏译最后一句会造成不必要的误会。
建议译为:在液压试验期间金属温度至少保持在最低设计金属温度以上30℉(17℃),但不需超过120℉(48℃)。

11)UG-99(i), 原文为:Vents shall be provided at all high points of the vessel in the position in which it is to be tested……
2004及以前版译为:在容器的最高部位应设排气口,……
译文未正确传达原文的涵义:一是应在容器试验状态的高部位,而不是操作状态的高部位;二是应在容器的所有高部位,而不仅仅是最高部位。
建议译为:在容器试验状态的所有高部位应设排气口,……

12)UG-125(d),原文为:……so that they are readily accessible for inspection, replacement, and repair and so that they cannot be readily rendered inoperative……
2004及以前版译为:……都应使其便于检查及修理,且不能经常失灵,……
译文意指不是经常的失灵是允许的。而原文的意思是,不允许轻易地发生失灵,和不允许经常失灵的涵义是明显不同的;另外,还漏译更换之意。
建议译为:……都应使其便于检查、更换及修理,致使不能轻易地发生失灵,……

13)UG-127(a)(3)(c)(1),原文为:……to prevent accumulation of pressure, or suitable means shall be provided to ensure that an accumulation of pressure does not affect the proper operation of the pressure relief valve54.
2004及以前版译为:……以防止由于阀的少量泄漏而引起压力积累。
译文只表示了“to prevent accumulation of pressure”,且按译者的理解而说明压力积累的起因。并未正确传达原文中对压力积累所引起后果的担心,以及在注54中所述的防止因压力积累所引起后果的其它适当方法。
建议译为:……以防止压力积累,或采用适当的方法以保证背压不致影响泄压阀的正意常操作54。

14)UG-129(c), 原文为:……or the combination capacity factor established by test in accordance with UG-132(a)or(b),……
2004及以前版译为:或按UG-132(a)或(b)通过试验确定组合装置的排量系数标出其排量。
原文并无要标出其排量之意,而仅要标出其组合排量系数。
建议译为:或标出按UG-132(a)或(b)通过试验确定的组合排量系数。

15)UG-129(e)(11), 原文为:Items (1), (2)and (5) above and flow direction shall also be marked on the rupture disk holder.
2004及以前版译为:上述第(1)、(2)和(5)条也应标在安全膜夹持器上。
译文遗漏了对爆破片夹持器而言极为重要的流动方向。
建议译为:上述第(1)、(2)和(5)条以及流动方向也应标在爆破片夹持器上。

16)UG-131(e)(2)的注,原文为:……the value of WT, calculated by the above equation, shall be corrected by being multiplied the following factors, which shall be used only if it is 1.0 or greater.
2004及以前版译为:按上述公式计算的WT应乘以下列系数进行校正,WT值应取大于等于1.0。
此处which 系指factors, 而非指value of WT, 译者的误解造成了读者的无法理解。
建议译为:按上述公式计算的WT应乘以下列系数进行校正,此系数仅在等于大于1.0时才采用。

17)UG-131(e)(2)、(4),(e)(2)中对P的说明原文为:(set pressure×1.10) plus atmospheric pressure, psia;(e)(4)中对允许范围的说明为±5%。
2004及以前版对(e)(2)中的psia误译为psi;对(e)(4)中的±5%误译为5%。会造成用户在执行中的出错或为难。

18)UG-131(h), 原文为:the capacity shall be determined by using the equation for steam and the correction factor for high pressure steam in (e)(2) above with the permitted absolute relieving pressure …… and the coefficient K for that value design.
2004及以前版译为:其排量应该用蒸汽的公式和在上面(e)(2)中高压蒸汽的校正系数,在许用绝对泄放压力下试验和用该阀设计的K系数来决定。
译文明确表示:排量应该采用公式、并用试验和K系数来决定。原文并无采用试验之意,而仅采用公式计算,但在计算中要用到校正系数以及泄放系数K。
建议译为:其排量应采用蒸汽的公式和上面(e)(2)中高压蒸汽在许用绝对泄放压力时的校正系数,以及用该阀设计的系数K来确定。
UG-133(g)也有类似的问题存在。
另外,本节各公式中的符号P都系p之误,应予改正。否则,将和UG-131(e)(2)各公式中的P相混淆而无法计算。

19(UG-136(a), UG-137(a), 原文为:Mechanical Requirement
2004及以前版译为:力学性能要求
因为此两节内容全部是讲机械性能要求而并非力学性能要求,故应译为机械性能要求。

20)UG-137(b)(1), (b)(3)(c), 原文为:The rupture disk material shall be controlled by the manufacturer of rupture disk device by a specification ensuring the control of material properties.
2004及以前版译为:安全膜材料由安全膜制造厂控制,制造厂采用某个牌号标准保证材料性能的控制。
要指出的是,爆破片和爆破片装置不一定由同一厂制造,据原文意思,爆破片材料应由爆破片装置制造厂、而不是由爆破片制造厂控制。爆破片夹持器外部结构其它零件的材料,也应由爆破片装置制造厂、而不是由爆破片制造厂控制。
建议译为:爆破片材料应由爆破片装置制造厂控制, 采用某个牌号标准以保证材料性能的控制。

21)W-2(a)(1)(c)(1), 原文为:The finished stub end shall be attached to its adjacent shell with a Type No.(1) or Type No.(2) joint of Table UW-12.
2004及以前版译为:制成的接管端部应连接到其相临的具有表UW-12No.(1)型或No.(2)型接头的筒体上。
此处UW-2(a)节都是指容器用作储存致死物质时,其中UW-2(a)(1)明确指出,除(a)(2)或(a)(3)的规定外,所有A类接头应为表UW-12的(1)型。译文却规定了接管端部应连接到具有表UW-12的No.(1)型或No.(2)型接头的筒体上,明显存在矛盾。此处的(1)型或(2)型接头不是指壳体的接头而是指接管端部至壳体的C类连接接头。
建议译为:制成的接管端部应采用表UW-12的(1)型或(2)型接头连接到其相邻的壳体上。

22)UW-11(f), 原文为:When radiography is required for a welled joint in accordance with (a) and (b) above, and the weld is made by the inertia and continuous drive friction welding process, the welded joints shall also be ultrasonically examined for their entire length in accordance with Appendix 12.
2004及以前版译为:当按上述(a)(b)焊接接头要求射线透照检查者,和焊缝系由惯性和连续驱动摩擦焊焊成的,还应按附录12的要求对其全长进行超声波检测。
译文明确表示了有二种情况的焊接接头还应按附录12的要求对其全长进行超声波检测,即, 一种是按上述(a)和(b)要求射线透照检查者,其中(a)为全部检测,(b)为抽样检测;另一种是由惯性和连续驱动摩擦焊焊成的。显然误解了规范的原意,如予执行,必致重复。
建议译为:当按上述(a)和(b)焊接接头要求射线透照检测,且此焊缝系由惯性和连续驱动摩擦焊焊成时,还应按附录12的要求对其全长进行超声波检测。

23)UW-13(b)(3), 原文为:A tapered transition having a length not less than three times the offset between the adjacent surfaces of abutting sections ……
2004及以前版译为:斜面过渡,其长度应不小于对接截面相邻表面间厚度差的三倍,……
显然,译者把此处的offset 误译为厚度差而可能导致执行时出错了。
建议译为:长度不小于相接截面毗邻表面间错边值三倍的削斜过渡,……

24)图UW-13.1, 原文缺分图编号(i), 译文将分图编号(g)起向前递补,致使从分图(i)起至分图(n)为止的所有分图号和原文不符。但在所有的文字说明中, 凡涉及分图号者(包括其它各有关章节中所涉及者)都未作出修改, 致使用户在阅图时对不上图号而导致出错。

25)UW-13(h) 原文为:……a tapered transition from the weld end of the nozzle may be provided to match the piping thickness although that thickness is less than otherwise required by the rules of this Division.(略)

26)UW-16(b),
原文为:Do=outside diameter of neck or tube attached by welding on inside of vessel shell only (略)

27)UW-16(c)(2)(b),
原文为:The weld at the inner edge of the reinforcement plate which does not abut a nozzle neck shall be a fillet weld with a minimum throat dimension 1/2 tmin.(略)
28)UW-16(e)(1),
原文为:It is recommended that a recessin.(1.5mm) deep be provided at the bottom of the groove in which to center the nozzle. The dimension tw of the attachment weld shall not be less than tn nor less than 1/4 in.(6mm),……(略)

29)W-18(d),
原文为:Unless the sizing basis is given elsewhere in this Division, the allowable load on fillet welds shall equal the product of the weld area (based on minimum leg dimension), the allowable stress value in tension of the material being welded, and a joint efficiency of 5%.(略)

30)UW-50,
原文为:On welded pressure vessels to be pneumatically tested in accordance with UG-100, the full length of the following welds shall be examind7 for the purpose of detecting cracks:
(a) all welds around openings;
(b) all attachment welds, including welds attaching nonpressure parts to pressure parts, having a throat thickness greater than 1/4in.(6mm).
(略)

31)W-52
的注, 原文为:If all radiographically disclosed weld defects must be eliminated from a vessel, then 100% radiography must be employed.(略)

32)UF-32(a),
原文为:All welding used in connection with the fabrication of forged vessels or components shall comply with the applicable requirements of ……(略)

33)UF-32(b)
原文为:When the carbon content of the material exceeds 0.35% by ladle analysis, the vessel or part shall be fabricated without welding of any kind, except for repairs [see UF-37(b)], for seal welding of threaded connections as permitted in UF-43, and for minor nonpressure attachments. Minor nonpressure attachments shall be jointed by fillet welds of not over 1/4 in.(6mm) throat dimensions. Such welding shall be allowed under the following conditions.(略)

34)UF-115,
原文为:……shall be marked on the thickened head, unless a nameplate is used.(略)

35)表UB-17的注(1), 原文为:In the case for round or tubular members, clearance on the radius is intended.(略)

36)表UCS-56(P-No.1 1,2,3,4) 的注(2)(a)(b)(c), 原文为: (a) for welded joints over 1-1/2in.(38mm) nominal thickness(略)

37)表UCS-56(P-No.10A)的注(1)(b), 原文为:Consideration should be given for possible embrittlement of materials containing up to 0.15% vanadium when postweld heat treating at the minimum temperature and at lower temperature for longer holding times.(略)

38)UCS-66(a)(1),
原文为:Excluding castings, the governing thickness tg of a welded part is as follows(略)

39)UCS-66(a)(1)(a),
原文为:for butt joints except those in flat heads and tubesheets, the nominal thickness of the thickest welded joint[see Fig.UCS-66.3 sketch (a)](略)

40)UCS66-(a)(1)(d),
原文为:for welded assemblies comprised for more than two components (e.g., nozzle-to-shell joint with reinforcing pad), the governing thickness and permissible minimum design metal temperature of each of the individual welded joints of the assembly shall be determined, ……(略)

41)UCS-66(a)(1)(d),
原文为:If the governing thickness at any welded joint exceeds 4in. and ……,(略)

42)UCS-66(b)(1)(a),
原文为:For such components, and for a MDMT of –55℉(-48℃ ) and warmer, ……(略)

43)UCS-66(b)(1)(b),
原文为:The ratio used in step 3 of Fig.UCS-66.2 shall be the ratio of maximum design pressure at the MDMT to the maximum allowable pressure (MAP) of the component at the MDMT.(略)

44)UCS-66(d),
原文为:……, the following exemptions from impact testing are also permitted as a function of the material specified minimum yield strength (SMYS) for metal temperature of –155℉(-105℃) and warmer(略)

45)UCS-67(a)(2),
原文为:when joining base metals exempt from impact testing by UCS-66(g) or Fig.UCS-66 Curve C or D and the minimum design metal temperature is colder than –20℉(-29℃) but not colder than –55℉(-48℃), unless welding consumables which have been classified by impact tests at a temperature not warmer than the MDMT by the applicable SFA specification are used; or(略)

46)UCS-67(a)(3)
(c)(3)二处, 原文为:when joining base metals exempt from impact testing by UCS-66(g) when the minimum design metal temperature is colder than –55℉(-48℃).(略)

47)UCS-67(d)(1),
原文为:weld metals joining steels exempted from impact testing by UCS-66 for minimum design metal temperature of –20℉(-29℃) and warmeror(略)

48)UHA-44(a)(2),
原文为:constant volume, (略)

49)UCI-78(a),
原文为:Imperfections which permit leakage in cast iron materials may be repaired by using threaded plugs provided(略)

50)UCL-23(c),
原文为:Base Material with Corrosion Resistant Integral or Weld Metal Overlay Cladding with Credit for Cladding Thickness. When the base material with corrosion resistant integral cladding conforms to one of the specifications listed in UCL-11(a), or consists of an acceptable base material with corrosion resistant weld metal overlay and the joints are completed by depositing corrosion resisting weld metal over the weld in the base material to restore the cladding, ……(略)

51)UHT-28(b), 原文为:All permanent structural attachments welded directly to shells or heads constructed of materials conforming to SA-333 Grade 8, SA-334 Grade 8, SA-353, SA522, SA-553, and SA-645 shall be of the material covered by these specifications or austenitic stainless steel of the type which cannot be hardened by heat treatment.(略)

52)ULT-17(C), 原文为:In vessels of 5%, 8%, or 9% nickel steels, all Category D joints shall be in accordance with Fig.UHT-18.1 or UHT-18.2 when the nominal shell thickness at the opening exceeds 1in.(25mm).(略)

53)7-4(f)(2),
原文为:Where the depth of repair is less than 1in. or 20% of the section thickness, whichever is the lessen, and where the repaired section cannot be radiographed effectively, the first layer of each 1/4 in.(6mm) thickness of deposited weld metal shall be examined by the magnetic particle or the liquid penetrant method. (略)

三、其它建议
        虽然2004版原文和其它各版一样, 也列出了更改一览表, 但由于种种原因, 也许会有所疏漏之处, 加上2001中文版(包括以前各版)的翻译、印刷可能存在笔误(包括字体、字号)、漏排等问题, 故译校人员应将原文对照前版中文逐字逐句校勘一遍, 而不仅仅是根据原文的更改一览表进行修改;可能的话, 更应对照原文将全文看一遍。
        由于各人专长不同, 对涉及内容如此之广的ASMEⅧ-1, 每人不可能样样熟悉。但相信只要译校人员相互配合、磋商, 虚心学习, 和原文逐句校对, 一点一滴地斟酌、改正, 相信后版的翻译质量一定会有更大的提高。
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